The new province of Artemisa becomes the thirteenth in the country due to its extension (it only exceeds Mayabeque and Havana province) and the eleventh for its population (it surpasses Cienfuegos, Sancti Spiritus, Ciego de Ávila and Mayabeque), as well as the province with the highest population density, except for Havana province and Santiago de Cuba. It limits to the west with Pinar del Rio, to the north with the Strait of Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, to the south with the Gulf of Batabanó and to the east with the province of Havana and the Mayabeque Province.
The Artemiseña population is 502 392 inhabitants and its surface area is 4 thousand 004.27 km2. Artemisa has an agricultural area of 272,849 hectares, 68.1% of the territory, which allows it to produce food to meet its demand and support the capital. In addition, it has a perspective site of high industrial port development such as Mariel.
Los Colorados (Hondo of San Cristóbal) 113.2 km. long
604 km2 of area 6 tributaries South Slope Born: In the Sierra del Rosario, Cordillera
of Guaniguanico, at 22 ° 34 ‘north latitude and 83 ° 53’ west longitude, at 340 meters altitude It ends: In the Gulf of Batabanó. Run: In north-south direction.
The Bread of Guajaibón with 692 meters of height.
The territory of the province comprises for the most part flat areas belonging to the southern karstic plain. At its western end (municipalities of Candelaria and San Cristóbal) the plain gradually becomes an alluvial plain irrigated by rivers from the Sierra del Rosario and the red soils (the most productive in the country) give way to more clayey soils but also fertile
In the south eastern part, caves and sinkholes abound, and rivers generally do not reach the coast (rivers Ariguanabo and Chaplaincies). The Ariguanabo basin collects waters from the southern slopes of the municipalities of Bauta, Caimito, San Antonio, Boyeros in the province (Havana) and Bejucal in the Mayabeque province.
From east to west the province is crossed by the Sierra del Rosario, the most important mountain range in the west of the country with the maximum elevation of Pan de Guajaibón (699 m) at its western end, belonging to the municipality of Bahía Honda. The mountain ranges with elevations of less height to the Heights of Mariel and the Table of Anafe or Loma del Esperón (Caimito). To the north of the Sierra del Rosario extends the undulating plain of the north, of smaller width than the south and less suitable for agriculture. The narrowest area of the island (31 km), a true Cuban isthmus, lies between the bay of Mariel and the bay of Majana (in the municipality of Artemisa). From the western elevations of the Sierra del Rosario it is possible to observe both coasts at clear sight on clear days.
The province has three excellent bays of stock exchange in the north coast (Bay Honda, Cabins and Mariel), all with port facilities. The largest river is the San Cristóbal with 62 km in length and a basin of 424 km² that starts in the Sierra del Rosario and flows into the south coast. The north coast is fundamentally rocky while the south is low with extensive mangrove areas and swampy areas. There are large water resources and numerous reservoirs, among which we can mention: La Paila and San Julián (San Cristóbal); San Francisco, Pinillos and Mosquito (Mariel), La Coronela (Caimito), Maurín (Bauta) and others.
The climate is tropical or subtropical humid with temperatures that do not exceed 35 ° C in summer. In winter, cold fronts frequently arrive, causing a considerable decrease in temperature in the early morning hours, which can drop to 4-8 ° C in the red soil plain (Güira de Melena) and even lower in the elevations of the Sierra del Rosario .
The relief of plains predominates, highlighting the Plain of Havana-Matanzas. It includes the westernmost part of the South Havana-Matanzas Plain, the Mariel Heights and the Anafe Table. It also highlights the Sierra del Rosario belonging to the Cordillera de Guaniguanico, where the highest point of the province is located. Its hydrography is characterized by short rivers with little flow, highlighting the Los Colorados and San Juan rivers. The fersialitic, brown, ferralitic, hydromorphic and humic soils predominate.